From rec.sport.baseball Sun Dec 4 11:31:00 1994
Path: news.csc.fi!news.funet.fi!sunic!pipex!howland.reston.ans.net!news2.near.net!satisfied.elf.com!rpi!jonesm2
~From: jonesm2@alum01.its.rpi.edu (Mike Jones)
~Newsgroups: rec.sport.baseball
~Subject: rec.sport.baseball FAQ Part 5: Glossary
~Date: 4 Dec 1994 02:52:38 GMT
Organization: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY
~Lines: 305
Message-ID: <3bratm$f8b@usenet.rpi.edu>
NNTP-Posting-Host: alum01.its.rpi.edu
Archive-name: baseball-faq/glossary
Welcome to the rec.sport.baseball FAQ!
This is section 5, glossary, version 1.12.
This version was last changed 94/12/03; it is posted approximately
monthly.
Send any comments, suggestions, or corrections to Mike Jones
(jonesm2@rpi.edu).
===== misc/numeric
/A - A modifier applied to a statistic to indicated that it has been
park adjusted, as BR/A for adjusted batting runs.
1B - Single, or first baseman.
2B - Double, or second baseman.
3B - Triple, or third baseman.
===== A =====
A - assist
AB - at bat
Adjusted Range Factor - The number of plays made by a player per
estimated nine innings of defensive play.
At Bat - An (official) At Bat is scored for every time a batter comes
to the plate unless
* he walks
* he hits a sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly
* he is hit by a pitched ball
* he is awarded first base by obstruction or interference
ARF - Adjusted Range Factor
AVG - Batting Average
===== B =====
BA - Batting average. Also Baseball America.
Balk - An illegal pitch, or illegal move by a pitcher. See the Balk
rule in section 2 of the FAQ.
Batting average - Hits divided by at-bats. Has been calculated the same
way since its first appearance in 1874, though the definition of
"hits" and "at bats" varied until 1888.
Batting Runs - The Linear Weights measure of runs contributed *beyond*
those of a league-average batter or team, such league average defined
as zero.
BB - base on balls, or walk.
BBW - USA Today Baseball Weekly.
Boswell, Tom - Baseball writer for the Washington *Post*; has also
written several books about the game.
BR - Batting Runs.
Brock6 System - A complex set of several hundred interlocking formulas,
designed to project a player's final career totals on the basis of
his performance up to a given point in time. An earlier form was
Brock2. The BrockN system(s) will give year-by-year projections, but
they tend to vary less than actual performance, so a player will tend
to have peak years that are better (and bad years that are worse) than
the Brock projections.
C language source code for the Brock2 system is available on the
rec.sport.baseball archive at eucalyptus.cc.swarthmore.edu.
===== C =====
C - Catcher
CF - Center Field
Counting stat - A raw figure that tells how many of an item have been
accumulated, as hits or HR. Contrast with Rate stat.
CS - caught stealing
===== D =====
DA - Defensive Average
Defensive Average - A statistic which expresses a player's fielding
performance as number of plays made divided by opportunities.
It is a defensive analog of Batting Average or On Base Percentage. It
became possible to calculate DA after Project Scoresheet began
gathering location data for every batted ball. The field is divided
into areas of responsibility, one to each fielder. "Plays made" is
"balls turned into outs", "opportunities" is "balls hit into a
player's zone of responsibility."
Note that DA doesn't attempt to *explain* a fielder's performance; a
fielder may have a good DA due to superior speed and instincts or due
to great positioning skills. DA records a fielder's rate of
*effectiveness* at turning batted balls into outs.
DH - Designated Hitter
DP - Double play
===== E =====
E - error
Earned Run - A run for which the pitcher is held accountable (Rule 10.18).
Earned Run Average - Calculated as earned runs times nine divided by
innings pitched. Introduced as an official stat in the NL in 1912 and
in the AL in 1913.
EQA, also EqA - Equivalent Average.
EQR, also EqR - Equivalent Runs.
Equivalent Average. A statistic developed by Clay Davenport. It is a
purely objective measure of a player's offensive performance. It
correlates exceptionally well with runs scored per out made; better
than batting average, OPS, or runs created. The scale of equivalent
average is similar to that for batting average; you should be able
to glance at the rating and tell whether it is good or bad.
Equivalent Runs. A statistic developed by Clay Davenport; a
companion to EQA. It is the estimated number of runs that this
player's stats added to the league. The scale is similar to RBI.
ER - Earned Run
ERA - Earned Run Average, calculated as 9*ER/IP
Error - Each misplay which prolongs the time at bat of a batter or
which prolongs the life of a runner, or which permits a runner to
advance one or more bases (from Rule 10.13). Errors are not defined in
the rules as an event (like a base hit), but as a decision of the
official scorer.
===== F =====
Favorite Toy - A method used to estimate the chance that a player, at a
given point in his career, will reach some specific goal (such as 3000
hits, 400 HR).
Fielding Average - (Putouts plus assists) divided by (putouts plus
assists plus errors).
Fielding Runs - The Linear Weights measure of runs saved beyond what a
league-average player at that position might have saved.
Fielding Percentage - see Fielding Average.
FR - Fielding Runs.
===== G =====
G - game, or game played
Game-Winning RBI - Credited to the batter who drives in the run that
gives his team a lead that it never relinquishes. The GWRBI was
introduced in 1980, was widely regarded as a bad idea and dropped
several years later.
Games Behind - Figured by adding the difference in wins between two teams
to the difference in losses and dividing by two.
GB - Games Behind
GWRBI - Game-Winning RBI
===== H =====
H - hit
HBP - Hit by pitch
HoF, also HOF - Hall of Fame. More properly the American Museum of
Baseball in Cooperstown, NY.
HR - Home run.
===== I =====
IBB - Intentional Base on Balls
IMO, also IMHO - In My (Humble) Opinion.
Intentional Base on Balls - Recorded by the official scorer when the
defensive team clearly intends to walk the batter. Only recorded since
1955.
IP - Isolated Power
Isolated Power - Slugging average minus batting average; this number
gives you an idea of how much of a player's offensive output is
composed of hits other than singles.
===== J =====
James, Bill - Author of a number of books on baseball, most notably a
series of "Baseball Abstracts." Did much to popularize "sabermetrics"
and generally the approach of studying baseball questions
scientifically. James' writing and (especially) statistics don't
always hold up to the standards of his best work, but he provided many
useful insights and a few worthwhile methods.
===== K =====
===== L =====
LF - Left Field
Linear Regression Model - A common mathematical tool used to derive the
value of each element within a data set, and thus prduce formulas that
can combine those values. This intimidating-sounding technique has
been used by a number of people to create models of team run scoring.
Linear Weights - A linear regression model of team run scoring developed
by John Thorn and Pete Palmer.
LOB - Left On Base
===== M =====
McWeekly - USA Today Baseball Weekly. Derived from the usage of
"McPaper" to refer to USA Today.
Major League Equivalency - The major league performance that is
equivalent to a given performance in the minor leagues. Bill James
discovered that by making appropriate adjustments for league and park,
you could figure an MLE for a player's minor league performance that
is as good for predicting future performance as prior major league
data.
Marginal Lineup Value - A statistic developed by David Tate which shows
the offensive value of a player compared to a "replacement level"
player in the same lineup.
MLB - Major League Baseball.
MLE - Major League Equivalency.
MLV - Marginal Lineup Value.
MVP - Most Valuable Player.
===== N =====
===== O =====
OBA - On Base Average. See On Base Percentage
OBP - On Base Percentage
Offensive Production Index - A statistic which shows the overall
offensive value of a player.
Offensive Winning Percentage - A Bill James statistic that answers the
question: If every player on a team hit the same way that this player
hits and the team allowed an average number of runs to score, what
would their winning percentage be?
On Base Percentage - Basically, the fraction of a player's plate
appeareances that resulted in his reaching base safely. It is defined
officially as (hits+walks+times hit by pitch)/(at bats+walks+times hit
by pitch+sacrifice flies). 1-OBP will tell you approximatelY
what fraction of the times a player has gone up to the plate have
resulted in outs. It was created by Branch Rickey in the early 1950's
in its present form, though it had ninteenth-century predecessors,
such as "Reached First Base". Adopted as an official stat in 1984.
Sometimes known as On Base Average.
OPI - Offensive Production Index.
OPS - On-base plus slugging (OBP+SLG). A fairly accurate and easily
calculated index of a player's rate of offensive production. See also
OTS. This statistic combines the two basic offensive skills: getting
on base (OBP) and advancing runners (SLG). OPS may also be used for
teams. An adjustment which makes OPS more accurate is figuring it as
(1.2*OBP+SLG), which compensates for the fact that SLG has a wider
range than OBP (i.e., a .500 SLG is common, but only about a half
dozen players have ever had .500 OBP's).
OTS - On-base times slugging. A better (than OPS) but harder to calculate
measure of a team's rate of offensive production. OTS is not a good
method to use for player comparisons, as it overvalues the SLG of
high-OBP players.
===== P =====
PA - Plate Appearance
Palmer, Pete - Co-author (with John Thorn) of Total Baseball and The
Hidden Game of Baseball and developer of several statistical methods.
Park Adjustment - Any of a number of methods used to adjust offensive or
defensive statistics for park illusions. Most of these methods work by
comparing the combinded statistics of a team and its opponents in home
games with their performance in away games.
Park Factor - a specific form of park adjustment; it gives a number by
which statistics must be divided to compensate for the park effects.
(For example, a pitcher with a 4.40 ERA in a park with a 1.10 park
factor has a park-adjusted 4.00 ERA.)
Passed Ball - A pitch which the catcher fails to field or hold onto
which allows runners to advance, and which (in the judgement of the
official scorer) should have been handled with "ordinary effort". See
also Wild Pitch.
PB - Passed Ball.
Pitching Runs - A measure of how many runs a pitcher prevented
compared to a league average pitcher.
PO - putout.
PR - Pitching Runs.
Pythagorean Method - A formula developed empirically by Bill James; he
discovered that the ratio of a team's wins to its losses is very
close to the square of the ratio of the team's runs scored to its
runs allowed.
===== Q =====
Quality Start - A start in which a pitcher pitches at least six innings
and allows no more than three earned runs.
===== R =====
r.s.bb - rec.sport.baseball
r.s.bb.f - rec.sport.baseball.fantasy
Range Factor - The average number of plays per game successfully made by
a fielder. Computed as (PO+A-E)/G
Rate Stat - A figure that shows rate of accumulation of an item, as
batting average (hits) or ERA (earned runs).
RBI - Runs Batted In
RF - Right Field
Runs Batted In - The official scorer credits a batter with an
RBI for each Run scored as a result of his batted ball unless
a) the batter grounds into a double play or
b) the run scored as a direct result of an error.
Runs Created - A statistic created by Bill James as a model of
team run scoring.
===== S =====
S - Sacrifice (bunt)
Sabermetrics - Derived from SABR (q.v.); a term coined by Bill James to
describe "the search for objective knowledge about baseball". Often
fallaciously believed to mean the mindless proliferation of
statistics.
SABR - The Society for American Baseball Research. Though the word
"sabermetrics" was derived from their name, SABR researches much more
than just statistics. In fact, the most popular areas of research in
SABR are historical, having to do with correcting (and finding) records
of 19th-century players, the Negro Leagues, and all professional
baseball games ever played.
Save - Created by Jerry Holtzman of the Chicago *Sun-Times*, saves were
first regularly reported by the *Sporting News* in 1960. The major
leagues adopted it as an official stat in 1969; it took its present
form in 1975.
SB - Stolen Base
SDCN - Stat-Drunk Computer Nerd
Secondary Average - The sum of a player's extra bases on hits, walks, and
stolen bases expressed as a percentage of at bats. This measures the
parts of a player's contribution that don't show up in his batting
average.
SF - Sacrifice Fly
SLG - Slugging Average; sometimes Slugging Percentage.
Slugging Average - A player's total bases divided by at bats. The
best measure of a player's ability to advance and/or score runners
on base.
Southpaw - a left-handed pitcher. The term comes from the common
practice of arranging fields so that home plate is west of the
pitcher's mound so that the sun won't be in the batters' eyes as it
sets, which orients the pitcher so his left arm is on his south
side.
SS - Shortstop
===== T =====
TB - Total Baseball (see section 4).
TBIII - Total Baseball version 3 (see section 4).
Total Average - A method developed by Tom Boswell for expressing a
player's overall offensive performance in one number. It is
interesting, but flawed.
TP - Triple play
TSN - The Sporting News.
TWG - Telegenic White Guy. A player whose reputation exceeds his ability
due to some combination of his being white and a good TV interview.
For example, Dan Gladden.
===== U =====
USAT-BW - USA Today Baseball Weekly
===== V =====
===== W =====
W-L, also W/L - Win-loss record (of pitchers or teams, typically).
Wild Pitch - A legally delivered ball that is so high, low, or wide that
the catcher cannot stop or catch it with "ordinary effort" (in the
judgement of the official scorer) and which allows a runner or runners
to advance. A pitch that touches the ground before reaching the plate
and is not handled by the catcher should be scored a Wild Pitch if a
runner or runners advances. See also Passed Ball.
WP - Wild Pitch.
===== X =====
===== Y =====
===== Z =====